Saturday, December 7, 2019
Ecommerce2 Essay An e-commerce solution for a business is the incorporation of all aspects of the business operation into an electronic format. Many well-established businesses have been selling on-line for years. For example, Dell Computers Corp., has been selling computers directly to end-users for years. Currently, Dell is selling excessive of 1 million dollars worth of computers everyday on the World Wide Web (WWW). When a business has incorporated an e-commerce solution, the business will experience a lower operation cost while at the same time increasing its profit. The e-commerce solution will allow businesses to eliminate unnecessary paperwork. All paperwork and data can be transformed into an electronic format. Thus, it will eliminate valuable shelf space and data can searched and accessed in matter of seconds. E-commerce will also automates the sales process. Customers can point click on the products they wish to purchase, fill out the customer information, and the product will be shipped and received in a matter of few days. The administration department does not have to fill out any paperwork because the customer had done it already. Thus, the efficiency will be greatly improved. With an e-commerce solution, the business will be open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. People from anywhere in the world with an Internet access will be able to visit the site at any time. They will not be restricted to the normal business operating hours. A brick + mortar business is normally limited to serving the customers in its local geographical location. With an e-commerce solution, that business will not be limited a geographical restriction, rather it opens itself to the global on-line market. Essentially, the business market exposure will be greatly increased. In conducting my study, I have researched extensively on the Internet for resources. I chose the Internet as my primary research medium because e-commerce is still a fairly new technology. Since it is technology related, the Internet will provide the most recent data available. Printed publications will not be able to adapt to changes as fast and efficient as electronic publications. I researched many e-commerce related web sites along with some companies that conduct statistical studies. Some of the e-commerce web sites that I looked into are E-Commerce Times, eRetail, and eMarketer. The statistical research firms that I researched are Forrester Research and Jupiter Communication. Both firms provided valuable statistical data that shows the rise of consumers shopping on-line and the predicted dollar amount that will be spent in the coming years. In conducting my study, I completed the following tasks:-I searched extensively on the Internet for sites that are e-commerce related. Upon visiting the sites, I evaluated each sites for the contents, thoroughness, and objectiveness. There are literally hundreds of sites that are devoted to e-commerce. However, after my careful examination of most of them, I n arrowed down to four sites that I will research for this report. -I have also researched many firms that conducts statistical researches. The two firms that I will be utilizing for this report are Forrester Research and Jupiter Communication. Both firms are known for their preciseness, non-objectiveness, and thoroughness. The statistical data I collected from these two firms will support my recommendation that every business should have an e-commerce solution implemented. From my research, I have developed twenty reasons why every business should incorporate an e-commerce solution into the business operation. They are listed below. There are approximately 70 million people worldwide that have access to the World Wide Web (WWW). No matter what industry or business one is in, one can not ignore 70 million people. To be part of that on-line community, one would need to be on the WWW for them. Because if one doe not do it, ones competitor definitely will. A lot of what passes for business is simply nothing more than making connections with other people. Every smart businessperson knows, it is not what one knows, it is whom one knows. Passing out ones business card is part of every good meeting and every businessperson can tell more than one story how a chance meeting turned into the big deal. Well, what if one could pass out the business card to thousands, maybe millions of potential clients and partners, saying this is what I do and if you are ever in need of my services, this is how you can reach me. One can, 24 hours a day, inexpensively and simply, on the WWW. 3.To Make Business Information AvailableWhat is basic business information? Think of a Yellow Pages ad. What are ones business hours? What does one do? How can someone contact the business? What method of payment does one take? Where is the business located at? Now think of a Yellow Pages ad where one can have instant communication. What is todays special? Todays interest rate? Next weeks parking lot sale information? If one could keep ones customer informed of every reason why they should do business with them, doesnt one think one could do more business? One can on the WWW. Making business information available is one of the most important ways to serve the customers. But if one looks at serving the customer, one will find even more ways to use WWW technology. How about making forms available to pre-qualify for loans, or have ones staff do a search for that classic jazz record ones customer is looking for, without tying up ones staff on the phone to take down the information? Allow the customer to punch in sizes and check it against a database that tells him what color of jacket is available in ones store? All this can be done, simply and quickly, on the WWW. One wont get Newsweek magazine to write up about ones local store opening, but one might get them to write up ones Web Page address if it is something new and interesting. Even if Newsweek would write about ones local store opening, one would not benefit from someone in a distant city reading about it, unless of course, they were coming to ones town sometime soon. With Web page information, anybody anywhere who can access the internet and hears about ones site is a potential visitor to ones Web site and a potential customer for ones information there. Chlamydia (714 words) Essay16.To Test Market New Services and ProductsTied into the reason above, we all know the cost of rolling out a new product. Advertising, advertising, advertising, press release and advertising. Expensive, expensive, expensive. Once one has been on the Web and know what to expect from those who are seeing ones page, they are the least expensive market for one to reach. They will also let one knows what they think of ones product faster, easier and much less expensively than any other market one may reach. For the cost of a page or two of Web programming, one can have a crystal ball into where to position ones product or service in the marketplace. Every kind of business needs the exposure that the media can bring, as I touched on in reason #5 To Heighten Public Interest, but what if ones business is reaching the media, as a newswire, a publicist or a public policy group. The media is the most wired profession today, since their main product is information and they can get it more quickly, cheaply and easily on-line. On-line press kits are becoming more and more common, since they work with the digital environment of more and more pressrooms. Digital images can be put in place without the stripping and shooting of the old pressrooms and digital text can be edited and outputted on tight deadlines. All these can be made available on an e-commerce solution. 18.To Reach The Education and Youth MarketIf ones market is education, consider that most universities already offer Internet accesses to their students and most K-12s will be on the Internet within the next few years. Books, athletic shoes, study courses, youth fashion and anything else that would want to reach these overlapping markets needs to be on the WWW. Even with the coming of the commercial on-line services and their somewhat older populations there will be nothing but growth in the percentage of the under 25 market that will be on-line. 19.To Reach The Specialized MarketSell fish tanks, art reproductions, flying lessons? One may think that the Internet is not a good place to be. Well, think again. The Internet isnt just for computer science students anymore. With the 70 million and growing users of the WWW, even the most narrowly defined interest group will be represented in large numbers. Since the Web has several very good search programs, ones interest group will be able to find ones company, or ones competitors. Ive talked about the power to serve the world with a e-commerce solution. How about ones neighborhood? If one is located in San Francisco Bay Area, the Raleigh NC area, Boston or New York, there is probably enough local customers with Internet access to make it worth ones while to consider Web marketing. A local Palo Alto, CA restaurant even takes lunch orders through the Internet! But no matter where one is, if the big client has Internet access, one should be there too. The following chart illustrates the projected Internet commerce revenue for the next four years. It is categorized by industries. The following chart illustrates the different projected revenues that will be generated online from different research firms. The following chart illustrates the percentage of people shopping around on-line versus the percentage of people making purchases on-line. The chart also illustrates the comparison between 1996 and 2000. After detailed analyzing and studying of the effects and benefits of incorporating an e-commerce solution to an existing business, it is clear that an e-commerce solution will benefit the business in every aspect. The implementation of an e-commerce solution will generate a brand new revenue stream, expand the market exposure, and decrease the operation cost. Many Fortune 500 companies, such as Dell Computer Corp., have already adapted e-commerce into their business operation. As I have mentioned earlier, Dell Computer Corp. is currently generating over 1 million dollars in revenues from their web-site. Many well-known brick mortar businesses are starting to establish their presence on the web. For example, Barnes ; Noble Booksellers, the top book retailer in North America, has just launched their web-site earlier this year following the success of Amazon.com. Amazon.com, the top book ; music seller on the web, has been referred to have one of the most efficient business operation i n the world today. Bibliography:RecommendationBased on the conclusion of this study, I recommend the following:-Every business should implement an e-commerce solution into the business operation. Works CitedE-Commerce Times: Everything You Wanted to Know About Doing Business Online. E-Commerce Times. 1999. . (9 August 1999). E-Marketer, Where Business Begins On-line. E-Marketer. 1999. . (9 August 1999). E-Retail, News and Information for Internet Retailers. E-Retail. 1999. . (9 August 1999). The Electronic Commerce Guide. Internet.coms Electronic Commerce Guide. 1999. . (9 August 1999). Forrester Research: Helping Businesses Thrive on Technology Change. Forrester Research. 1999. . (9 August 1999). Jupiter Communication: Market Research on the Consumer Online Industry. Jupiter Communication. 1999. . (9 Au
Saturday, November 30, 2019
The Ever-Changing American Culture The Ever-changing American Culture As Americans, we used to worry little about war, having enough to eat, travel, freedom, and our most basic everyday activities. The tragic events of September 11, 2001 have forever changed the American way of life. We have now become more concerned with our physical health because of the few cases of anthrax and the possibility of more biological warfare. We also worry about nuclear warfare and the effects it could have on our health and environment. Americans have certainly become more patriotic and involved with their families since September 11. Most of us watch the news diligently to learn of any defeat the United States has accomplished in Afghanistan. Many of us are avoiding the airlines and are not spending very much money. This has helped push the economy further on the downward slope. The stock exchange hit bottom on September 21 in the 8100 range and is now back over 9900, which is right at the cusp of being a bull market (Pellegrini). Oil prices have been dropping rapidly and are now around 17 dollars a barrel, which will help to boost our slowing economy. Unemployment rates will unfortunately probably remain the same. Manpower, Inc. said Monday that its survey of United States companies' hiring intentions for the first three months of 2002 barely registered a pulse, a weakness not seen since the recessionary early months of 1991. Unemployment numbers will continue to climb up through the winter and spring even as and if a recovery takes hold (Pellegrini). Our commitment together to boost the nation's economy will ensure a bright future. America's future seems to be based on our new ideas formed since September 11, but yet we still carry on the problems of the past. There is still many Americans living in poverty. There is still illegal drugs that infest our nation with addiction and crime that encircles the drug trade. There are many children not getting a good education and many of whom who are fearful of violence at our schools. It is up to us as Americans to face these problems head on now more than ever before. The nation's most important problems to tackle and change are our illegal drug problem, the lack of good education for those of all ages, and to end the terrorist situation. The United States War on Drugs has done little to stop the sources of the problem and has only persecuted the user. The nation's children are often trying these illegal drugs at early ages despite drug education. These children also happen to lack in nearly every subject when compared to other nations around the globe. Many of the free nations of the world are dealing with terrorism and we all hope for a solution that will prevent any further violent acts committed against innocent people. The situation in Afghanistan actually began in 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded their country. The United States funded money to the mujahedin, or holy warriors, in the name of stopping communism. From this support, Afghanistan was able to defeat the Soviet Union in 1989. Yet the country became very unstable after the war. Political power was fluctuating often and leaders came in and out of power rapidly. Farmers resorted to growing many drugs such as poppies and marijuana and sold them around the globe. Cities were annihilated. Over five million Afghanis fled to other countries in search of a better life. When the Afghanis turned to the United States for help in rebuilding our country, we refused. This caused great anger amongst the Afghani people directed toward the United States. This also lead to Mullah Mohammod Omar, the current leader of Afghanistan, to form a ground of men to rebuild his country. They are now known as the Taliban. Omar's personal description is, A simple ban d of dedicated youths determined to establish the laws of God on Earth and prepared to sacrifice everything in pursuit of that goal. The Taliban have many radical believes including the idea of the never ending holy war or, jihad. Since the original forming of the Taliban, they have taken over 90 percent of Afghanistan with some assistance from Pakistan. Now that
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The Morality of Downloading Music essays Ever since Napster first came on the scene in the late 1990s, downloading music and movies over the internet has been an extremely controversial issue. People all over the world delighted in the fact that you could get your favorite songs with the click of a mouse from the comfort of your own home. However, for almost as long as file-sharing programs have been around, there have been those who try to stop them. Record companies, many recording artists, and the movie industry plead with, and try to force the public to stop this piracy. The number of lawsuits has been going up in recent years and the targets have become average people who download a few things here and there. However, the issue is not as black and white as it seems. Many people believe, with good reason, that downloading isnt the horrible criminal offense that the recording and movie industries make it out to be. Sometimes, downloading actually helps music sales by generating an interest in a certain band or st yle of music. The recording industry is filled with artists who have the kind of money most people can only dream about, and yet they ask for more. The most important point is that this is the direction technology has taken us in and now that its here, its not likely to go away. The record companies may say technology or not, stealing is stealing. But in a way, downloading has revitalized the music industry and generated new interest, which the record companies can use to their advantage if they would only adapt to these file-sharing programs rather than try to fight them. To consider whether or not downloading music is stealing, one must first look at the definition of stealing. According to Neil Rollins, downloading music isnt comparable to stealing a CD from a record store. When you take a CD from a store, it is theft because you are taking it away from the shop someone still has to pay for the physical costs...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Giant Covalent Structures There are 2 examples of Giant covalent structures: Diamond Graphite They are bothÃ allotropesÃ of carbon, meaning they areÃ both differentÃ types of the physicalÃ form of Carbon. Diamond Structure: Giant covalentÃ latticeÃ of carbon atoms. Each Carbon atom is bonded to 4 others which tetrahedrally surround the atom. They have aÃ high melting pointÃ as a large amount of heat energy is needed to break their bonds. They areÃ unableÃ to conduct electricity as they have no free mobileÃ electrons to carry the current.Diamond is veryÃ hardÃ as there are many bonds within the substance. It is the hardest natural substance and is often used in drilling. Graphite Structure: Arranged inÃ layersÃ of atoms. Each carbon atom is joined to 3 others, leaving one outer shell electron on each carbon is free to move and able to cary the current. Therefore, they are able to conduct electricity. Graphite also has a high melting point for the same reasons as diamond. However, it is not hard like diamond but in fact very soft. There are weak forces betweenÃ theÃ layers of atoms.TheyÃ are able to slide over each other and therefore able to act as a lubricant. Covalent Bonding Definition:Ã When an atom shares one or more pairs of electrons between atoms to obtain the electronic configuration of a noble gas. Covalent bonds appear inÃ non-metalsÃ and createÃ molecules. They can even appear in atoms of the same element,Ã H2. Molecule:Ã Two or more atomsÃ chemicallyÃ bonded together. The covalently bonded atoms are held together byÃ strong attractionÃ between theÃ bonding pair of electronsÃ and theÃ nucleiÃ of the atoms.Covalent bonds can be classified intoÃ twoÃ groups:Ã simple molecularÃ structures Ã giant covalentÃ structures Simple molecular Structures: They have low melting/boiling points dueÃ to the fact thatÃ thereÃ areÃ weakÃ intermolecular forces of attraction. Although, they do have strong covalent bonds. Therefore, they need less heat energy to overcome and break the weak bonds. Some substancesÃ sumblimeÃ under heating. i. e. They turn directly into a gas from a solid. Giant molecular Structures:Ã See post on giant Molecular structures , Ionic BondingDefinition:Ã The transfer of one or more electrons between 1 atom to another Why? To obtain the electronic configuration of a noble gas. ThisÃ is because noble gases are inert/very unreactive. If an atomÃ losesÃ an electron then the atom will form aÃ positiveÃ ion. This is because there are now more protons than electrons in the atom. If an atomÃ gainsÃ an electron, the atom forms aÃ negativeÃ ion as there are now more electrons than protons in the atom. TheÃ chargeÃ of an ion is related to where the elementÃ¢â¬â¢s position is in the periodic table.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Biodiversity of the Ecosystem in Taxon - Essay Example The first period of evolution of insect is called Devonian. Development of body parts was the first major part of evolution of insects. There are three major part of insect body namely Head, Thorax and Abdomen. Insects belong to each group of ecosystem. They can live in water, air and on land and trees also. There are various developments in their structure according to their adaptations. Like when insects start flying they developed wings. They also developed compound eyes to have good sight and navigation. To support their bones they have a strong skin. Slowly according to their habitat they modified their body structure. Folded wings made them compact in size. The latest modification in the structure of insect is the evolution from larvae. This made them to evolve independently. Their mouth, limb, wings and other parts developed. The development of mouth happened according to the food habits. They developed sucking mouth to suck the nectar from flowers. They generally depend on liquid diet. Change in flower structure caused to the change in the mouth structure of insects. The evolution of insects was a very long process. However threat to them is much and should be preserved to save ecosystem.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Market - Research Proposal Example This necessity also entails multiple other concepts of marketing that encompasses the techniques based on which the factors related to customer dissatisfaction are identified and apprehended in an effective manner (Pearson Education, Inc., 2010). In relation to the above context, the proposal will be mainly designed for gathering the viewpoints of the customers in determining their satisfaction level towards the purchase made in relation to the selected product of Ã¢â¬ËCornish pastyÃ¢â¬â¢. In this proposal, multiple outcomes that project the emergence of customer complaints concerning the above product from domestic as well as international levels will also be evaluated. If seen from a logical perspective, it can be stated that the rise within the compliant levels amid the customers towards the selected product might impose greater level of threat to the business process of the company involved in manufacturing the product in the business markets of the UK (Cornish Pasty Association, 2015). Thus, with this concern, an attempt has been made to explore the reasons as to why there has been an increase in the percentage of complaints associated with this specific food product and also determine the nature of the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ complaints. Considering the above stated aspects, the proposal will also lay utmost focus on accumulating customersÃ¢â¬â¢ feedback relating to taste, quality, price and design of the product. From a theoretical perspective, it can be affirmed that the decrease within the interest levels of the customers eventually minimises the scope of developing multiple other products of similar category and also the revenue attainment opportunity. Rest apart, another credential objective of preparing this proposal is to focus upon collecting credential information regarding the potential changes that the customers intend to see within this product. Further part of the proposal will mainly encompass preparing two specific types of
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The Cardiovascular System Essay The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, blood vessels and blood. The heart is a myogenic muscle, meaning that it can contract without any nervous supply. It is composed of cardiac muscle which is built up of cells that are connected by cytoplasmic bridges, allowing electrical impulses to cross. The four major functions of the cardiovascular system are: 1. To transport nutrients, gases and waste products around the body 2. To protect the body from infection and blood loss 3. To help the body maintain a constant body temperature (Ã¢â¬ËthermoregulationÃ¢â¬â¢) 4. To help maintain fluid balance within the body Delivery of Oxygen and Nutrients Removal of Waste Products: The cardiovascular system works as a transport network, linking all of the body parts via a system of Major routes (arteries and veins), Main routes (arterioles and venules) and Minor routes (capillaries). This network allows a non-stop transportation system, the blood, to add or remove different nutrients, gases, waste products and messages to different parts of the body. Important nutrients such as glucose are added from the digestive system to the major muscles and organs that require them for energy in order to execute their functions. Hormones, chemical messengers, are transported by the cardiovascular system to their target organs, and the many waste products of the body are transported to the lungs or urinary tract to be removed from the body. The cardiovascular system works in partnership with the respiratory system to deliver the oxygen needed to the tissues of the body and remove unnecessary and harmful carbon dioxide. To be able to do this efficiently and effectively, the cardiovascular system is comprised of two circuits. These circuits are known as the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit. The pulmonary circuit consists of the heart, lungs, pulmonary veins and pulmonary arteries. This circuit is responsible for pumping deoxygenated (blue) blood from the heart to the lungs in order for it to be able to be oxygenated (red) and return to the heart. The PulmonaryÃ circuit works out of the right side of the heart and feeds blood back into the left side. The systemic circuit consists of the heart and all the other arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins in the body that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t part of the pulmonary circuit. This circuit is responsible for pumping oxygenated (red) blood from the left side of the heart to all the tissues, muscles and organs in the body, to be able to provide them with the nutrients and gases they need to be able to execute their specific functions. After it has delivered the oxygen needed, the systemic circuit is then responsible for picking up the waste carbon dioxide and returning this in the now deoxygenated (blue) blood, back to the lungs, where it will enter the pulmonary circuit to become oxygenated again. Maintenance of constant body temperature (thermoregulation): The average core body temperature range for a healthy adult is expected to be between 36.1Ã °C and 37.8Ã °C, with 37Ã °C being known as Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ body temperature. If the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature drops anywhere below this essential range it is known as hypothermia and if it rises above this essential range it is known as hyperthermia. As the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature moves further into hypo or hyperthermia they will become life threatening. Because of this, the body works continuously, with the help of the cardiovascular system, to maintain its core temperature within the normal healthy range. This process of temperature regulation is known as thermoregulation and the cardiovascular system plays an important and essential part. Temperature changes that may occur within the body are detected immediately by sensory receptors called thermoreceptors, which in turn communicate information about these changes to the hypothalamus in the brain. When a substantial change in temperature is recorded, the hypothalamus reacts by initiating certain specific mechanisms in order to return the core temperature back to a safe temperature range. There are four place in the body where these adjustments in temperature can occur, they are: 1. Sweat glands: These glands are instructed to release sweat onto the surface of the skin when either the blood or skin temperature is detected to be well above a normal safe temperature. This allows heat to be lost through evaporation and cools down the skin so that blood that has been sent to the skin can be cooled down. b. Smooth muscle around arterioles: Large increases in temperature will result in the smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles being triggered to relax, causing vasodilation. This then causes an increase in the volume of blood flow to the skin, allowing cooling to occur. If however the thermoreceptors detect a cooling of the blood or skin then the hypothalamus reacts by sending a message to the smooth muscle of the arteriole walls causing the arterioles to vasoconstrict, this means reducing the blood flow to the skin and therefore helping to maintain the core body temperature. c. Skeletal muscle: When a drop in blood temperature is recorded the hypothalamus will also react by causing the skeletal muscles to start shivering. Shivering is caused by lots of very fast, small muscular contractions which then produce heat to help warm the blood d. Endocrine glands: The hypothalamus may trigger the release of hormones such as thyroxin, adrenalin and noradrenalin in response to the drops in blood temperature. These hormones all help to increase the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s metabolic rate, which increases the production of heat. 2. Protection from infection and blood loss Blood contains three types of cells, these are listed below and shown in the images. 1. Red blood cells 2. White blood cells 3. Platelets Red blood cells: are solely responsible for transporting oxygen around the body to the important tissues and organs that require it. As oxygen enters the blood stream through the alveoli of the lungs, it binds to a necessary protein in the red blood cells called haemoglobin. white blood cells: A white blood cells job in the body is to detect foreign bodies or infections and envelop and kill them. When they detect and kill an infection they create antibodies for that particular infection which allows the immune system to act more quickly and efficiently against foreign bodies or infections it has come into contact with previously. Platelets: are cells which are responsible for clotting the blood, they stick to foreign particles or objects such as the edges of a cut. Platelets become connected with the help of fibrinogen, causing a clump to form which acts like a plug, blocking the hole in the broken blood vessel. On an external wound this would become a scab. If the body has a low level of platelets then blood clotting may not occur and bleeding can continue for long periods of time. Excessive blood loss can be fatal Ã¢â¬â this is why people with a condition known as haemophilia need medication else even minor cuts can become fatal as the bleeding will continue without a scab being formed. Alternatively, if platelet levels are excessively high then clotting within blood vessels can occur, leading to a stroke and/or heart attack. This is why many people with a history of cardiac problems are often prescribed medication to keep their blood thin to minimise the risk of clotting within their blood vessels. This medication will be blood thinners such as warfarin. 4. Maintaining fluid balance within the body The cardiovascular system works in connection with other body systems (nervous and endocrine) to maintain the balance of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s fluid levels. Fluid balance is essential in order to make sure that there is sufficient and efficient movement of electrolytes, nutrients and gases through the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s cells. When the fluid levels in the body do not balance a state of dehydration or hyperhydration can occur, both of which effect normal body function and if left unchecked can become dangerous or even fatal. Dehydration is the excessive loss of body fluid, usually accompanied by an excessive loss of electrolytes. The symptoms of dehydration include; headaches, cramps, dizziness, fainting and raised blood pressure, the blood becomes thicker as its volume decreases requiring more force to pump it around the body. Hyperhydration on the other hand results from an excessive intake of water which pushes the normal balance of electrolytes outside of their safe limits. This can occur through long bouts of intensive exercise whereÃ electrolytes are not replenished and excessive amounts of water are consumed. This can lead to internal drowning. This can also result in the recently consumed fluid rushing into the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s cells, causing tissues to swell. If this swelling occurs in the brain it can put excessive pressure on the brain stem that may result in seizures, brain damage, coma or even death. Dehydration or a substantial loss of body fluid results in an increase in the concentration of substances within the blood (blood tonicity) and a decrease in blood volume. Where as hyperhydration or a gain in body fluid (intake of water) usually results in a reduction of blood tonicity and an increase in blood volume. Any change in blood tonicity and volume is detected by the kidneys and osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. Osmoreceptors are specialist receptors that detect changes in the dilution of the blood. Basically they detect if we are hydrated (diluted blood) or dehydrated (less diluted blood). In response they release hormones which are transported by the cardiovascular system, through the blood, to act on main tissues such as the kidneys to increase or decrease urine production. Another way the cardiovascular system maintains fluid balance is by either dilating or constricting the blood vessels to increase or decrease the amount of fluid that can be lost through sweat. Blood Vessels: Arteries: Arteries are the main blood vessel in the body for carrying oxygenated blood. These vessels have thick walls to be able to withstand the high pressures of the oxygenated blood that they carry. Veins: Veins are the main vessel for carrying deoxygenated blood. These vessels have a large lumen and thinner walls as the blood they carry is not as high pressure. Veins can be categorized into four main types: pulmonary, systemic, superficial, and deep veins. Arterioles: A small branch of an artery that leads to a capillary. The oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) makes the blood in arterioles (and arteries) look bright red. Arterioles are smaller in diameter to arteries and are located further away from the heart where blood pressure is lower. Venules: Smaller branches of veins that lead to a capillary. These transport deoxygenated blood like veins but are smaller in size. Capillaries: Capillaries are extremely small vessels located withinÃ the tissues of the body that transport blood from the arteries to the veins. Fluid exchange between capillaries and body tissues takes place at capillary beds. . The Respiratory System Respiratory System: Oxygen Delivery System The main function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen so that the blood can deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen (O2) and exhale carbon dioxide (CO2). This exchange of gases is the respiratory systems way of transporting oxygen to the blood. Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. Oxygen enters the system through the mouth and the nose and then passes through the larynx and the trachea, which is a tube that enters the chest. In the chest, the trachea splits into two slightly smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchus is then divided again, forming the bronchioles.The end of the bronchioles are tiny sacs called alveoli. The average adult will have about 600 million of these spongy, air-filled sacs in their lungs. These sacs are surrounded by capillaries for efficient gas exchange. This oxygen that has been inhaled passes into the alveoli and then diffuses through the cell walls of the alveoli into the capillaries and thus into the arterial blood. At the same time, the waste-rich blood from the veins releases carbon dioxide into the alveoli. The carbon dioxide follows the same path out of the lungs when you exhale. The diaphragms job is to help pump the carbon dioxide out of the lungs and pull the oxygen into the lungs. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscles that lies across the bottom of the chest cavity. As the diaphragm contracts and relaxes, breathing takes place. When the diaphragm contracts, oxygen is pulled into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, carbon dioxide is pumped out of the lungs. The respiratory system is divided into two main components: Upper respiratory tract: Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chestÃ cavity. Nasal cavity: Inside the nose, the sticky mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity traps dust particles, and tiny hairs called cilia help move them to the nose to be sneezed or blown out. Sinuses: These air-filled spaces along side the nose help make the skull lighter. Pharynx: Both food and air pass through the pharynx before reaching their appropriate destinations. The pharynx also plays a role in speech. Larynx: The larynx is essential to human speech. Lower respiratory tract: Composed of the trachea, the lungs, and all segments of the bronchial tree (including the alveoli), the organs of the lower respiratory tract are located inside the chest cavity. Trachea: Located just below the larynx, the trachea is the main airway to the lungs. Lungs: Together the lungs form one of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s largest organs. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re responsible for providing oxygen to capillaries and exhaling carbon dioxide. Bronchi: The bronchi branch from the trachea into each lung and create the network of intricate passages that supply the lungs with air. Diaphragm: The diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle that contracts and relaxes to allow air into the lungs. Gas Exchange Gas exchange is the diffusion of Oxygen from the alveoli into the blood flow and the waste Carbon Dioxide (CO2) that is situated in the blood flow passing back into the alveoli to be breathed out. Each tiny alveoli is covered in a network of capillaries which make this process easier. Ã¢â¬ ¢We breathe in air, containing 21% Oxygen Ã¢â¬ ¢The air reaches the alveoli. Here the Oxygen passes through the alveoli walls and into the surrounding capillaries Ã¢â¬ ¢The oxygen then enters the red blood cells where it combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin Ã¢â¬ ¢It will now travel around the body to where it is needed, such as our important organs and muscles Ã¢â¬ ¢At the same time, Carbon Dioxide, a waste product, is collected from the muscles and organs, into the blood stream Ã¢â¬ ¢When back at the lungs the CO2 diffuses out of the blood, into the alveoli to be breathed out Ã¢â¬ ¢The cycle continues as more Oxygen is received into the blood flow. The body uses Oxygen and creates waste Carbon Dioxide because of the volumesÃ of both gases in the air we breath in and out: Air breathed in Air breathed out Oxygen 21% 17% Carbon Dioxide 0.04% 4% This table shows that we use some of the Oxygen we breathe in, as less is breathed out. This is because some oxygen is retained in the lungs as residual volume so that it can be used as an emergency store. It also shows that we produce CO2 as there is more in the air we breathe out. Breathing Breathing in is known as inspiration Breathing out is known as expiration The intercostal muscles are positioned inbetween our ribs The Diaphragm is a sheet of muscle which sits under the ribs and lungs Inspiration To be able to draw air into our lungs, the volume of the chest, or thoracic cavity must increase. This happens because the Intercostal muscles and the diaphragm contract. The rib cage moves up and out and the diaphragm flattens to increase the space in the thoratic cavity. This decreases the air pressure within our lungs, causing air to rush in from outside. Expiration At the end of a breath, the intercostal muscles and diaphragm will relax, returning to their starting position, which will decrease the size of the thoracic cavity. The decreased space and increased air pressure in the lungs forces air out Lung Capacity Human lungs will hold varying amount of air, depending on how deeply and quickly we breathe. They are also never empty, even if you breathe out as far as you can. Different terms describe the different volumes of the lungs: Tidal volume The amount of air you breathe in or out with each breath Inspiratory capacity The maximum amount you can breathe in (after a normal breath out) Expiratory reserve volume After breathing our normally, this is the extra amount you can breathe out Vital capacity The maximum amount of air you could possibly breathe in or out in one breath Residual volume The amount of air left in your lungs after you have breathed out as much as possible The more exercise that we undergo, the more our need for Oxygen increases. This means that the amount we breathe in and pump around our bodies in the blood must change to keep up. To do this, we breathe faster and our heart pumps faster. This increased oxygen uptake, is measure by your VO2, or the amount of oxygen your body uses in a minute. This can be used as a prediction of your fitness level. The maximum VO2 is called VO2 Max and the fitter you are the higher this is because your body is more effective at taking in and using oxygen. Control of Breathing (Neural and Chemical): There are two ways in which the body controls the ability to breath, Neural and chemical control. These are explained below: Neural Breathing Neural breathing control contains two ways of controlling the breathing; voluntary breathing along with automatic breathing also. Mechanoreceptors send messages to the brain when they sense a different movement of joints they access movement and metabolic status. Chemical Breathing Chemical mechanisms are those of which detect how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is within the body, if there is too much gases the chemical reactions control this is order for our brain to tell us to breathe faster and quicker. If there is too much carbon dioxide and a shortage of oxygen then this is suited in order for our respiration to speed up. The Heart: ATRIUM- There are two atria in the heart. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the vena cava and pumps it through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The left atrium receives oxygenated bloodÃ from the pulmonary vein and pumps it through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle. VENTRICLES- There are two ventricles in the heart. The right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and off to the lungs to be oxygenated. The left ventricle receives oxygenated blood from the left atria and pumps it through the aortic valve into the aorta and off to the body. The left ventricle is slightly thicker walled that the right ventricle as it is required to pump the blood further. AORTA- The aorta is the main artery of the body which feeds the major organs and muscles of the body with oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart. PULMONARY ARTERY- Another main artery of the body, th e pulmonary artery transports deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs for it to be oxygenated. This is the only artery in the body to carry deoxygenated blood. SUPERIOR INFERIOR VENA CAVA- The superior and inferior vena cava are the two main veins of the body which bring deoxygenated blood from around the body back into the right side of the heart. PULMONARY VEIN- Another main vein of the body, the pulmonary vein transports oxygenated blood from the lungs back into the left side of the heart. This is the only vein in the body to carry oxygenated blood. CHORDAE TENDINAE- The chordae tendinae keep blood from flowing back into the atria after passing into the ventricles. SEPTUM- The septum separates the left and the right sides of the heart and contains the important SA node, used to make the heart beat. BICUSPID VALVE- The bicuspid valve, also known as the atrio-ventricular valve is situated in the left side of the heart between the left atrium and left ventricle. This valve opens when prompted to allow blood to be pumped from the atrium into the ventricle and closes after this process to stop the blood from flowing back on itself. TRICUSPID VALVE- The Tricuspid valve, also known as the atrio-ventricular valve is situated in the right side of the heart between the right atrium and right ventricle. This valve opens when prompted to allow blood to be pumped from the atrium into the ventricle and closes after this process to stop the blood from flowing back on itself. PULMONARY VALVE- Also known as the semi-lunar valve. Situated between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery this valve allows blood to be pumped into the artery whilst stopping it from flowing back on itself back into the right ventricle. AORTIC VALVE- Also known as the semi-lunar valve.Ã Situated between the left ventricle and the aorta this valve allows blood to be pumped into the artery whilst stopping it from flowing back on itself back into the left ventricle. The Lungs: LARYNX- The larynx (voice box) is part of the respiratory system that holds the vocal cords. It is responsible for producing voice, helping us swallow and breathe. TRACHEA- The trachea (or windpipe) is a wide, hollow tube that connects the larynx (or voice box) to the bronchi of the lungs. It is an integral part of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s airway and has the vital function of providing air flow to and from the lungs for respiration. CARTILAGE RINGS- The function of the cartilaginous rings of the trachea is to stabilize the trachea and keep it rigid while allowing the trachea to expand and lengthen when the person breathes. If the trachea was not supported in this way, it would simply collapse because of the pressure of the chest. There are between 16 and 20 cartilaginous rings in an average trachea. The first and last tracheal rings are broader and deeper than the others. The first ring is just beneath the larynx and the thyroid gland. The last one is just above where the trachea branches off into the bronchi, the two tubes that lead to the lungs. MAIN STEM BRONCHUS- either of the two main branches of the trachea, which contain cartilage within their walls BRINCHI- Smaller branches of the mainstem bronchi which lead to and carry air to the bronchioles. BRONCHIOLES- Smaller branches of the bronchi which lead air to the alveoli for diffusion. LOBES- Lobes are the flaps of tissue that make up each lung. Ach lung is made up of 3 lobes. PLEURA- A thin serous membrane that envelops each lung and folds back to make a lining for the chest cavity. PLEURAL FLUID- The pleura produces a fluid that acts as a lubricant that helps you to breathe easily, allowing the lungs to move in and out smoothly. This is called pleural fluid. ALVEOLI- The alveoli are tiny air sacs within the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. DIAPHRAGM- The diaphragm is the dome-shaped sheet of muscle and tendon that serves as the main muscle of respiration and plays a vital role in the breathing process. PLEURAL MEMBRANE- The pleural membranes enclose a fluid-filled space surrounding the lungs.